Pigeon Tower – Dovecotes

Varzaneh pigeon tower is in the vicinity of Sheikh Bahai Street and it is beside the coastal park of Varzaneh and it has a very good position and the building has a potential to become a destination for providing tourist services. The interior architecture of the pigeon tower is exceptional; the magnificence of these buildings is also magnificent due to its wide expanse and splendor and diversity. And these monuments, like all other Iranian architectural works, have beautiful features. Iranian architect due to the wisdom look toward climate and biology created an amazing and lasting wonder on this planet called Iranian pigeon tower. And how beautiful it is that towers that have the color of the soil has the harmony with the planet Earth and it has been the reminder of the days before and it truly deserves to be superior to Seven Wonders of the Universe. Unfortunately, Iranian house of pigeons like many other Iran’s artistic manifestations remains unknown and these beautiful towers of the house of pigeons were considered as the infrastructure of agricultural facilities. The pigeon towers can be found in the all part of Iran and they are available in different parts such as the eastern side of Lake Urmia or in Yazd desert, in Meybod and in some villages of Natanz and Kashan, as well as in southern Khorasan and Tabas. There were more than three thousand beautiful pigeon towers near Isfahan; Design and function of the pigeon towers were very interesting and wise. It has been astonishing that they could attract pigeons and create a safe habitat for the pigeon. Pigeon houses, like a military fort, have been resistant to all the enemies of pigeons.  The architecture of the pigeon house is in such a way that it is not only against predators such as hawk, owl, and crow, There is no path to invade for predators to come inside the towers; the way the pigeon house was made is in such a way that it provides security with the peace and comfort of the pigeons. The accuracy of the implementation of these pigeon towers has been such a great that the percentage of the arrival of disturbing birds has dropped to zero. If a bird or an attacking animal went inside this tower, the pigeons could never feel calm and leave the tower. The interior of the pigeon house was so safe and fun and the number of around 25,000 pigeons was sometimes gathered. The nests were so beautifully and orderly built with modules of the same shape and of clay.  It was very cool in the summer and it was in such a way that the wind was blowing in its atmosphere and On the contrary, it was warm in the winter that stops the cold of local cold winds. All these arrangements have led to the creation of these architectural masterpieces, the Iranian house of pigeons. The diameter of the hole of the pigeons is made to an extent that only pigeons could enter it and the attacking birds could not enter it. Interestingly, for the precision of the size of the diameter of the pigeon holes, especially in the golpayegan and Khomein style pigeons, clay pipes were used to make the holes identical; it was not big enough to enter the attacking birds, not too small for pigeons to enter. Another defensive equipment of Iranian pigeons house is that they were made against the cat and the fox, and to some extent, human beings As well as snakes and mice. Although the mouse was not a direct enemy of the pigeon, by channeling underneath the pillows, the towers were empty and pierced after a long time. Moreover, those channels provide a way for other hunter animals such as snakes to enter the basement.

Repelling the enemy in the pigeon house

Other measures that the Iranians had in order to defend against the pigeon’s enemies or in order to attract the pigeons were as following: Use of the smell of some beasts like wolves and hyenas and the smell of some plants such as frankincense and mirage to protect pigeons. In some Iranian pigeons` house, including the villages of Golpayegan and Khomein, they laid the head of the wolf and hyena in a pigeon house. Until recently, there was a head of the hyena in Abolqasem Golpayegan’s Ribat. Beautiful architecture of Iranian pigeons` house was famous for its economic performance, That is, the factory for making the best-known fertilizer in the world. Other sciences were used in the construction of pigeon towers, such as the use of physics science according to the principle of resonance For the purpose of paying attention and flying about 14,000 to 25,000 pigeons. Very strong vibrations were made by rising of the pigeons.   Geometry and mathematics and aesthetic principles are noteworthy for maximizing the surface in a constant volume. Knowledge of Zoology and Animal Psychology were also applied in the creation of defensive equipment of pigeon house and also mechanical, biological and chemical measures were applied to combat the enemies of the pigeons. Climatic, botanical and other sciences it has also been used.

Interior architecture of pigeons

The interior architecture of pigeon’s house is exceptional; the greatness of these buildings is also due to the magnificence and splendor and diversity in the form. These monuments, like other Iranian architectural works, have followed both the performance and the beauty of the form. Design and selection of circular sites to make a pigeon house with wavy ways have contributed to high resistance. It has been quoted that snakes are not able to climb curved surfaces such as cylinders. A great French traveler writes in part of his travel report: “Iran’s huge pigeons are six times larger than our largest orphanages. These towers are built of bricks, and they are planted with chalk and lime and At all levels of the inner wall of the tower from top to bottom, some Holes were embedded in them so that pigeons hang in them. “Paying attention to the dimensions of the horizontal and vertical development plan and the construction of stairway pigeons and floor-to-floor construction brings easy restoration. In warm and dry areas, the presence of current water is not possible, pigeons can use from water by constructing a well and creating water reservoirs

Pigeons and foreign tourists

Iranian pigeon has attracted many tourists and foreign tourists which will briefly mention here. Ibn Batoteh was Moroccan and was the first travel journalist to speak about the Iranian pigeon: In his long journey about 5 centuries ago (477 years ago), he says: These pigeons houses have been seen through the village of Philan and Isfahan: “Philan is a large village built on a huge river and next to the ziyai mosque. That day In June there were gardens and beautiful waters in the countryside and they had many towering pigeons.  We continued our journey and reached the next day to Isfahan … “About two centuries later Chardin carefully dealt with the issue of Iranian pigeons. He has dedicated one volume of his ten volumes to Isfahan, the capital of that day in Iran. And as he himself has said Isfahan is better than Paris. Oedrand writes about pigeons in Iran “I believe that Iran is a country that its best pigeon houses in the world are unique. All these are made to obtain fertilizer, not to nurture and feed the pigeons. “he writes: “The Persians call the bird`s pee” Chaghur “Which means stimulant and tonic.  The delicious and delicious fruits of Iran and Isfahan are owed to these pigeons. ” Thomas Herbert writes about Isfahan and its pigeons: “Although Iranian homes were nice and clean, they were by no means comparable to the home of their pigeons (pigeon towers), which has a strange appearance. ”  “Eugene Flange” writes: “We find several pigeon towers between Jolfa and ruins.  These towers attract a man … they are so big, solid and beautiful. ”

Pigeons and the economy

The importance of the pigeon house in the Iranian economy has been so much that Ghazan Khan Mongol, along with other measures tried to revive Iranian agriculture and he issued some commands for the preservation and rehabilitation of pigeons and pigeon’s houses. And it’s unfair that we do not have all the knowledge and knowledge of these works and do not do anything great for their greatness, and every day we see the collapse of this cultural and artistic background. Unfortunately, the lucrative performance of these valuable monuments, which is fundamental to the work of agriculture, remains hidden in our community. These amazing buildings are the factories for the world’s best-known fertilizer. The world considers Iranians as the most sensitive people of the contemporary world in preserving their ancient works, Therefore, it’s up to us to keep track of cultural heritage, including the survival of these pleasing towers of pigeons.  Each of which is a tourist attraction.  With the unanimity and cooperation of the country’s cultural heritage organization, Travel and Tourism Organization,  Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Archaeological and Architectural Schools and other related organizations we can  put our effort in preservation of these monumental architectural monuments, which are the infrastructure for the promotion of the agricultural industry:  We should try and understand that: It’s better to walk rather than to walk aimlessly, though it’s a long way ahead.


Ibn Battutah travelogue, translation by Mohammad Ali Moawad, Volume I, Tehran, 1359, translating and Publishing Agency

Lotfollah Hanfarr, Isfahan during the successors of Timur, Tehran, 1355, Arts and People Magazine

Abbas Beheshtian, Part of the Treasures of National Works, Esfahan, 1342, no  Publisher.

Morteza Farhadi, Iran Land, Number Four and Five, Summer 72- Travel and Pilgrimage Deputy of Ministry of Culture and Tourism Islamic guidance

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. All fields are required.